Based on information from the KGB, Soviet leaders felt that Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin's actions had destabilized the situation in Afghanistan. Zahir's cousin, Mohammad Daoud Khan, served as Prime Minister from 1954 to 1963.  The leaders of the Khalq faction tended to be Pashtuns from a poorer background while the leaders of the Parcham faction were usually Farsi-speakers from the Tajik and Hazara ethnic groups who came from well-off backgrounds. On 17 May 1986, two Pakistan Air Force (PAF) F-16 intercepted two Su-22M3K belonging to Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Air Force (DRAAF) near the Pakistani airspace. In the second week alone, Soviet aircraft had made a total of 4,000 flights into Kabul. , The UK 's role in the conflict entailed direct military involvement not only in Afghanistan, but the Central Asian republics of the Soviet Union. The program funding was increased yearly due to lobbying by prominent U.S. politicians and government officials, such as Wilson, Gordon Humphrey, Fred Ikle, and William Casey.  (Iran provided similar help to Shia Islamist groups and punishments to moderate Shia nationalist Afghans. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, military action carried out in late December 1979 by Soviet troops. The law was hailed by supporters as a necessary step in preventing communist subversion in the United States, while opponents decried the legislation as being xenophobic and discriminatory. Of specific concern were Amin's secret meetings with the U.S. chargé d'affaires, J. Bruce Amstutz, which, while never amounting to any agreement between Amin and the United States, sowed suspicion in the Kremlin.  The Finnish scholar Raimo Väyrynen wrote about the so-called "Saur Revolution": "There is a multitude of speculations on the real nature of this coup.  The communist party itself experienced deep internal rivalries between the Khalqists and Parchamites; in September 1979, People's Democratic Party General Secretary Nur Mohammad Taraki was assassinated under orders of the second-in-command, Hafizullah Amin, which soured relations with the Soviet Union. Following the engagement, there was major decline in the number of attacks on Afghan refugees camps in Pakistan. Iran on the other hand only supported the Shia Mujaheddin namely the Persian speaking Shiite Hazaras in a limited way. Thatcher visited Pakistan in October 1981 and met President Zia-ul-Haq, toured the refugee camps close to the Afghan border and then gave a speech telling the people that the hearts of the free world were with them and promised aid.  Heavy fighting also occurred in the provinces neighbouring Pakistan, where cities and government outposts were constantly under siege by the mujahideen. To minimize their own losses the Soviets abstained from close-range fight, instead they used long-range artillery, surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles.  In October 1984 the Soviet ambassador to Pakistan, Vitaly Smirnov, told Agence France Presse "that journalists traveling with the mujahidin 'will be killed. General Secretary Mohammed Najibullah's government, though failing to win popular support, territory, or international recognition, was able to remain in power until 1992.  Beijing had stipulated that a normalization of relations would have to wait until Moscow withdrew its army from Afghanistan (among other things), and in 1989 the first Sino-Soviet summit in 30 years took place. This was notably ineffective against small scale guerrilla groups using hit-and-run tactics in the rough terrain of Afghanistan. The Soviet-Afghan War (1978–92) was a war in Afghanistan that matched the Soviet Union and its Afghan allies against a coalition of anti-Communist groups called the Mujahideen, supported from the outside by the United States, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia. Disguised as tourists selected junior commanders in the mujaheddin were trained in three week cycles in Scotland, northern and Southern England on SAS training grounds. "The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine year war between the Soviets and anti-Soviet forces which were fighting to depose Afghanistan's Marxist government.  The principle reasons for the invasion was the belief in Moscow that Amin was a leader both incompetent and fanatical who had lost control of the situation together with the belief that it was the United States via Pakistan who was sponsoring the Islamist insurgency in Afghanistan.  More importantly, the radical Khalq faction believed in rapidly transforming Afghanistan by violence if necessary from a feudal nation into a Communist nation while the moderate Parcham faction favored a more gradualist and gentler approach, arguing that Afghanistan was simply not ready for Communism and would not be for some time.  In 1988, the governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan, with the United States and Soviet Union serving as guarantors, signed an agreement settling the major differences between them known as the Geneva Accords.  The Afghan army forces had a high desertion rate and were loath to fight, especially since the Soviet forces pushed them into infantry roles while they manned the armored vehicles and artillery. If fundamentalism comes to Afghanistan, war will continue for many years. Talk:Soviet–Afghan War/Archive 5#Recent edit inaccurately asserts that the U.S. armed the mujahideen in September 1979; all available evidence suggests the U.S. did not send arms until after the Soviet invasion: Semi-protected edit request on 6 February 2018: 2: Talk:Soviet–Afghan War/Archive 5#Semi-protected edit request on 6 February 2018 One of these groups was the Tehran Eight a political union of Afghan Shi'a.  In 2012 Pakistan banned extensions of visas to foreigners. Eyvazov said, "Children born in Afghanistan at the start of the war... have been brought up in war conditions, this is their way of life."  In 1974, Bhutto authorized another secret operation in Kabul where the ISI and the AI extradited Burhanuddin Rabbani, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Ahmad Shah Massoud to Peshawar, amid fear that Rabbani, Hekmatyar and Massoud might be assassinated by Daoud. There were 115,308 cases of infectious hepatitis, 31,080 of typhoid fever, and 140,665 of other diseases.  In 1975, both Pakistan and Saudi Arabia began to support Islamic fundamentalist groups committed to overthrowing the Daoud Khan regime and establishing an Islamist theocracy in its place. in "The Enemy of My Enemy". Gorbachev had also been attempting to ease cold war tensions by signing the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty with the U.S. in 1987 and withdrawing the troops from Afghanistan, whose presence had garnered so much international condemnation.  The other reason was that Hekmatyar and his men had "almost no grassroots support and no military base inside Afghanistan", and thus more "dependent on Zia-ul-Haq's protection and financial largesse" than other mujahideen factions. The Soviets did not initially foresee taking on such an active role in fighting the rebels and attempted to play down their role there as giving light assistance to the Afghan army. Between April 1985 and January 1987, they carried out over 23,500 shelling attacks on government targets. , Overall financially the U.S. offered two packages of economic assistance and military sales to support Pakistan's role in the war against the Soviet troops in Afghanistan. , The volunteers also influenced each other.  Restoration of gas production has been hampered by internal strife and the disruption of traditional trading relationships following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.  The Sarandoy, a KHAD controlled government militia, had mixed success in the war. Periodically the Soviet Army undertook multi-divisional offensives into mujahideen-controlled areas. , The CIA gave the majority of their weapons and finances to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-i-Islami who also received the lion's share of aid from the Saudis. February 15 marks 30 years since the day the last Soviet soldiers were withdrawn from Afghanistan. As the Afghan students came of age, they formed "the mainstay" of the Taliban in Afghanistan and of the anti-Shia Sipah-e-Sahaba Sunni terror group in Pakistan. , Critics of Soviet and Afghan government forces describe their effect on Afghan culture as working in three stages: first, the center of customary Afghan culture, Islam, was pushed aside; second, Soviet patterns of life, especially amongst the young, were imported; third, shared Afghan cultural characteristics were destroyed by the emphasis on so-called nationalities, with the outcome that the country was split into different ethnic groups, with no language, religion, or culture in common. In Moscow, Leonid Brezhnev was indecisive and waffled as he usually did when faced with a difficult decision.  It was assumed in Moscow that because Pakistan (an ally of both the United States and China) was supporting the mujahideen that therefore it was ultimately the United States and China who were behind the rebellion in Afghanistan. The Russian interest in the region continued on through the Soviet era, with billions in economic and military aid sent to Afghanistan between 1955 and 1978.  5–10 million Afghans fled to Pakistan and Iran, 1/3 of the prewar population of the country, and another 2 million were displaced within the country. "Жаркое небо Афганистана: Часть IX" [Hot Sky of Afghanistan: Part IX]. Daoud put an end to the monarchy, and his time in power was marked by unpopularity as the abolition of the monarchy was not widely approved of in a conservative society. On his way back, he stopped in Moscow on March 20 and met with Brezhnev, Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko and other Soviet officials. The Soviet–Afghan War was a conflict wherein insurgent groups (known collectively as the Mujahideen), as well as smaller Maoist groups, fought a nine-year guerrilla war against the Soviet Army and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan government throughout the 1980s, mostly in the Afghan countryside. The Mujahideen were variously backed primarily by the United States, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, China, and the United Kingdom; the conflict was a Cold War-era proxy war. Whether the introduction of the personal, portable, infrared-homing surface-to-air "Stinger" missile in September 1986 was a turning point in the war is disputed. More broadly, the term also encompasses military activity within Afghanistan after 1992—but apart from the Afghanistan War (2001–14), a U.S. … After a month, the Afghan requests were no longer for individual crews and subunits, but for regiments and larger units. In 1978, after witnessing India's nuclear test, Smiling Buddha, President Daud Khan initiated a military buildup to counter Pakistan's armed forces and Iranian military influence in Afghan politics. Meyer, born Stephenie Morgan, was raised in Phoenix, Arizona, the second of six siblings.  Najibullah sought American cooperation in achieving a political solution. Pakistani President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's ties with the U.S. had been strained during Jimmy Carter's presidency due to Pakistan's nuclear program. Although the refugees were controlled within Pakistan's largest province, Balochistan under then-martial law ruler General Rahimuddin Khan, the influx of so many refugees – believed to be the largest refugee population in the world – spread into several other regions. Ambassador Adolph Dubs, National Revolutionary Party of Afghanistan, NATO's two-track missile deployment decision, Liberation Organization of the People of Afghanistan, List of Soviet aircraft losses during the Soviet–Afghan War, attempted to buy back the Stinger missiles, Allegations of CIA assistance to Osama bin Laden, Soviet war in Afghanistan in popular culture, Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union, Post–World War II air-to-air combat losses, Soviet involvement in Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, Spetsnaz (Russian Special Purpose Regiments), "Worldwide Reaction to the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan", "India to Provide Aid to Government in Afghanistan", "Afghanistan War | History, Combatants, Facts, & Timeline", "Interview with Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski-(13/6/97)", "Charlie Wilson: Congressman whose support for the mujahideen helped force the Soviet Union out of Afghanistan", "Saudi Arabia and the Future of Afghanistan", "China's Evolving Stance on Afghanistan: Towards More Robust Diplomacy with "Chinese Characteristics, Polish Institute of International Affairs, "Sadat Says U.S. Buys Soviet Arms in Egypt for Afghan Rebels", "Middle East Policy Council | Lessons of the Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan", "Afghanistan hits Soviet milestone – Army News", The Soviet-Afghan War: Breaking the Hammer & Sickle, "Soviet Air-to-Air Victories of the Cold War", "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths", "Afghanistan: Demographic Consequences of War: 1978–1987", "7 things you probably didn't know about the Soviet war in Afghanistan", "Moslems Condemn Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan", "U.N. General Assembly Votes to Protest Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan", "India Supports Soviets' Afghan Position in U.N. In November 1980 a number of such incidents had taken place in various parts of the country, including Laghman and Kama. In Southwestern Asia, drastic changes were taking place concurrent with the upheavals in Afghanistan. , To complement their brute force approach to weeding out the insurgency, the Soviets used KHAD (Afghan secret police) to gather intelligence, infiltrate the mujahideen, spread false information, bribe tribal militias into fighting and organize a government militia. , When the Soviet Union fell shortly after their withdrawal from Afghanistan, the volunteers were "exultant", believing that—in the words of Osama bin Laden—the credit for "the dissolution of the Soviet Union ... goes to God and the mujahideen in Afghanistan ... the US had no mentionable role," (Soviet economic troubles and United States aid to mujahideen notwithstanding). China and Afghanistan had neutral relations with each other during the King's rule. Kaplan note that "none of the American TV networks had a bureau for a war", and television cameramen venturing to follow the mujahideen "trekked for weeks on little food, only to return ill and half starved".  Decrees setting forth changes in marriage customs and land reform were not received well by a population deeply immersed in tradition and Islam, particularly by the powerful landowners who were harmed economically by the abolition of usury (although usury is prohibited in Islam) and the cancellation of farmers' debts. Despite an active support for insurgent groups, Pakistanis remained sympathetic to the challenges faced by the Russians in restoring the peace, eventually exploring the idea towards the possibility of setting-up the interim system of government under former monarch Zahir Shah but this was not authorized by President Zia-ul-Haq due to his stance on issue of Durand line. In September 1979, Deputy Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin seized power, arresting and killing General Secretary Taraki. However, some Russian sources claim that F-16 was shot down by Mig-23, though the Russian Mig-23 were not carrying air-to-air missiles. On the contrary, it would get worse.  The general consensus amongst Afghan experts at the time was that it was not a question of if mujahideen would take Kabul, but only when the mujahideen would take Kabul.. Wilson claimed that before the Stinger the Mujahideen never won a set piece battle with the Soviets but after it was introduced, the Mujahideen never again lost one. On 16 April 1987, a group of PAF F-16s again chased down two DRAAF Su-22 and managed to shoot down one of them and capture its pilot.  Some military analysts considered it a "game changer" coined the term "Stinger effect" to describe it. Two Americans were killed in the blast and 65 Americans and Vietnamese were injured. " He preached the importance of jihad: "those who believe that Islam can flourish [and] be victorious without Jihad, fighting, and blood are deluded and have no understanding of the nature of this religion"; of not compromising: "Jihad and the rifle alone: no negotiations, no conferences and no dialogues"; and that Afghanistan was only the beginning: jihad would "remain an individual obligation" for Muslims until all other formerly-Muslim lands—"Palestine, Bukhara, Lebanon, Chad, Eritrea, Somalia, the Philippines, Burma, South Yemen, Tashkent, Andalusia"—were reconquered. New Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev decided it was time to get out. It had close relations with the Soviet Union. The paratroopers were directly subordinate to the senior Soviet military advisor and did not interfere in Afghan politics.  The army of the Soviet Union killed large numbers of Afghans to suppress their resistance. Its involvement ranging from civil-military infrastructure to Afghan society. Masood had not threatened the withdrawal to this point, and did not attack Soviet forces after they breached the agreement. Support was approved by the British government who then authorised MI6 to conduct operations in the first year of the Soviet occupation, coordinated by MI6 officers in Islamabad in liaison with the CIA and the ISI. Also, the Soviet Union's previously strong relations with Iraq had recently soured. The assumption among most Western diplomats was that the Soviet-backed government in Kabul would soon collapse; however, this was not to happen for another three years. The summery and point of view of the United States during the 1980s explaining the conflict that lasted over nine years. In the clash, one PAF F-16 was lost after it was accidentally hit by an AIM-9 Sidewinder fired by the second PAF F-16. Touring the Muslim world and the United States, he inspired young Muslims with stories of miraculous deeds, such as mujahideen who defeated vast columns of Soviet troops virtually single-handedly, angels riding into battle on horseback, and falling bombs intercepted by birds. They stayed for three weeks or more in the mountains moving supplies to Massoud under the noses of the Pakistanis who insisted on maintaining control. They got sucked into Afghanistan much as the United States got sucked into Vietnam, without clearly thinking through the consequences, and wildly underestimating the hostility they would arouse". The fighters used whatever weapons they could grab from the Soviets or were given by the United States.  Following Kosygin's rejection, Taraki requested aid from Leonid Brezhnev, the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Soviet head of state, who warned Taraki that full Soviet intervention "would only play into the hands of our enemies – both yours and ours". Many "unexpected" religious-political ideas resulted from the "cross-pollination" during the "great gathering" of Islamists from dozens of countries in the camps and training centers.  In the year 1987, two PAF F-16 ambushed four Mig-23 who were bombing Mujahideen supply bases. Hope was one of many Hollywood stars who followed the tradition of traveling overseas to entertain ...read more, On December 24, 1923, President Calvin Coolidge touches a button and lights up the first national Christmas tree to grace the White House grounds. This damaged Afghanistan's economy and Daoud's regime was pushed towards closer alliance with Soviet Union for trade. The agreement on withdrawal held, and on February 15, 1989, the last Soviet troops departed on schedule from Afghanistan. The Soviet Union supported the government while the insurgents found support from a variety of sources including the United States,and Pakistan."  By mid-1987 the Soviet Union, now under reformist leader General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, announced it would start withdrawing its forces after meetings with the Afghan government. Mujahideen groups used for assassination had three to five men in each.  Daoud Khan's policy to annex Pashtun areas of Pakistan had also angered Non-Pashtun population of Afghanistan. Large salaries and proper weapons attracted a good number of recruits to the cause, even if they were not necessarily "pro-communist". Ironically, until demoralized by the defections of its senior officers, the Afghan Army had achieved a level of performance it had never reached under direct Soviet tutelage. According to the Soviet Politburo, they were complying with the 1978 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighborliness, and Amin had been "executed by a tribunal for his crimes" by the Afghan Revolutionary Central Committee. However, despite suffering heavily, the mujahideen were able to remain in the field, mostly because they received thousands of new volunteers daily, and continued resisting the Soviets. Soviet-Afghan military cooperation began on a regular basis in 1956, and further agreements were made in the 1970s, which saw the USSR send advisers and specialists. Most visible was CBS news correspondent Dan Rather, who in 1982 accused the Soviets of "genocide", comparing them to Hitler. Following his initial coup against and killing of Taraki, the KGB station in Kabul warned Moscow that Amin's leadership would lead to "harsh repressions, and as a result, the activation and consolidation of the opposition. , Informal negotiations for a Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan had been underway since 1982. By terms of the treaty, all conquered territory was to be returned, and commissions were ...read more, A devastating fire at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., destroys about two-thirds of its 55,000 volumes, including most of Thomas Jefferson’s personal library, sold to the institution in 1815. In July, the Afghan government requested that two motorized rifle divisions be sent to Afghanistan.  By the mid-1980s, the Soviet contingent was increased to 108,800 and fighting increased, but the military and diplomatic cost of the war to the USSR was high. The Soviet-Afghan War (1979-1989) was a conflict between the Soviet Union and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and the rebel Mujahideen, who were supported by many Western and Arab nations.  The tide of the war turned with the 1987 introduction of U.S. shoulder-launched anti-aircraft missiles. However, these statistics are based on Mujahedin self-reporting, which is of unknown reliability. On December 25, the lower house of the parliament defended the Soviet war in Afghanistan on the 30th anniversary of its start, and praised the veterans of the conflict. These reforms were deeply unpopular among the more traditional rural population and established power structures. They nurse a gauzy nostalgia for the joys of being young jihadists. To do that, he needed a popular cause to unite the Afghan people divided along the tribal lines (Pashtunistan policy) and a modern, well equipped Afghan army which would be used to surpass anyone who would oppose the Afghan government. In 1942, the USSR again moved to strengthen the Afghan Armed Forces by providing small arms and aircraft, and establishing training centers in Tashkent (Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic). Around fifty Launchers and 300 Missiles were delivered and the system nevertheless proved ineffective; thirteen missiles were fired for no hits and it was eventually supplanted by the US Stinger missile.  CIA agents are also known to have given direct cash payments to Jalaluddin Haqqani. Pakistan took in millions of Afghan refugees (mostly Pashtun) fleeing the Soviet occupation.  However the guerillas were unable to fully defeat the Afghan Army as expected by the United States and Pakistan, and neither could the Najibullah government win on the battlefield. , Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province became a base for the Afghan resistance fighters and the Deobandi ulama of that province played a significant role in the Afghan 'jihad', with Madrasa Haqqaniyya becoming a prominent organisational and networking base for the anti-Soviet Afghan fighters.  ), The man instrumental not only in generating international support but also in inspiring these volunteers to travel to Afghanistan for the jihad was a Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood cleric, Abdullah Azzam. [page needed] The government brooked no opposition to the reforms and responded with violence to unrest. Notable among them was a young Saudi named Osama bin Laden, whose Arab group eventually evolved into al-Qaeda.  Some also made their way into North America, the European Union, Australia, and other parts of the world. , For the Soviet operations in 1929 and 1930, see, War between the Soviet Union and Afghan insurgents, 1979–89, At least 90,000 casualties, including 57,000 killed.  The only allies of the Soviet Union to give support to the intervention were Angola, East Germany, Vietnam and India. The large Red Army formations weren't mobile enough to engage small groups of Muj fighters that easily merged back into the terrain. In order to counter the Soviet jets, United States started providing F-16 jets to Pakistan.  The Soviets' failure in the war is thought to be a contributing factor to the fall of the Soviet Union. "Typhoon" began on January 23 and continued for three days. With the first years of the Clinton Administration in Washington, DC, all aid ceased.  His brother and General Dmitry Chiangov met with the commander of the 40th Army before Soviet troops entered the country, to work out initial routes and locations for Soviet troops.. , Intense opposition from factions of the PDPA was sparked by the repression imposed on them by Daoud's regime and the death of a leading PDPA member, Mir Akbar Khyber.  However, no direct U.S. aid to bin Laden or any of his affiliates has ever been established. Kabul had achieved a stalemate that exposed the mujahideen's weaknesses, political and military. Carter told National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski and Secretary of State Cyrus Vance as early as January 1979 that it was vital to "repair our relationships with Pakistan" in light of the unrest in Iran. President Jimmy Carter placed a trade embargo against the Soviet Union on shipments of commodities such as grain. 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